The geographical area of India is 3,287,240 sq. km as per the data of Census 2001. 91 per cent area of India is land whereas 9 per cent is water. This constitutes about 2 per cent of the total area of the world. This makes India 7th largest country in the world in terms of area. Out of this total geographical area of India, about 120,849 sq. km of area is under the illegal occupation of China and Pakistan.
Geography of India
India shares its borders with Nepal, Bangladesh, China, Pakistan, Bhutan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka and Myanmar. The northern borders of India are largely defined by the Himalayas. The Himalayan Mountain Range forms the border with China, Nepal and Bhutan. India borders Pakistan to the west and is defined by the Karakoram Range, the Rann of Kutch, Punjab Plains and the Thar Desert. To the east, the Khasi Hills and the Mizo hills define the border of India with Bangladesh.
The Union of India lies on the Indian Plate, which is the northern part of the Indian-Australian Plate. India forms a large boundary with oceans. India forms the boundary with the Arabian Sea on the west, the Bay of Bengal to the east, Lakshadweep on the southwest and the Indian Ocean on the south. This gives India a substantially large coastline area, which is about 7,516.6 km.
Ganga is the largest river of India which is about 2,525 km in length whereas the Wular lake is the largest lake of India, which is 260 sq. km in area. India has three main watersheds, which are the Himalaya and Karakoram range, Vindhya and Satpura range and Sahyadri. The Himalayan rivers form the main water bodies of India, they are a snow-fed river and hence never dries out. The major Himalayan rivers of India are Ganga, Yamuna, Indus, Jhelum, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej.
India has six types of climates including, arid desert, humid tropical regions, alpine tundra and glaciers. The country witnesses four seasons namely, winter, summer, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons.