Human body is made up of many complex structures and every complex structure played a vital role for the sustainability of the human body. It takes many years to understand the structure and functions of every part of the body. Cell is the basic unit in all of the structures of the body and every part is made up of trillions of cells. First time cells were identified in 1665 by a biological scientist named Robert Hooke and after this in the year 1839 the famous cell theory was proposed by two scientists Schleiden and Schwann for the understanding of human body and further development in this field. The most important and long-lasting structures in the cells are DNAs which are responsible to shape the human body, behavior of a person and many more things.
Full form of DNA
Full form of DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA was first identified in the year 1869 by a well-known scientist of that time named Friedrich Miescher. It is an important component present in the cell of human which contains the hereditary material for the next generation. It is present in the cells of all the living beings on the face of the earth. It contains the information for the development, behavior, structure and sustainability of the body. Inside the cell, it is present in the nucleus and in a coiling shape. The structure of deoxyribonucleic acid contains two strands and these two strands make a coil with one another. Those two strands are composed of nucleotides which forms a complex helical structure. Each strand contains subunits or monomeric units called nucleotides and each of the nucleotides has four chemical structures named as guanine (G), Thymine (T), Cytosine (C) and adenine (A). In a human these chemical structures strength is more than three billion and in almost every human this amount remains the same. These four chemical structures form the information for building, behavior and shape of the body of human. Just a little bit change in the sequence of these four structures will change the whole organism. The sequence is the most important thing just like the alphabets to make a specific word. Each deoxyribonucleic acid has the ability to multiply itself because every cell needs an exact copy of that structure. When cells multiply these double helix structures also multiply with exact copies and transferred into the new cell. Most of these are present in the nucleus of a cell but some amount is also present in the mitochondria of a cell.
Genes on DNA
With the development of science the structure of DNA exposed and further information gathered from the structure. On the deoxyribonucleic acid genes are the most important structures which are responsible for different properties in a living organism. Gene is the basic unit which performs the specific heredity characteristics in an organism. To understand clearly gene is made up of deoxyribonucleic acid or you can say it is a specific sequence of deoxyribonucleic acid. Genes are the structures who played a vital role in giving a specific behavior or trait to any person.
Benefits of DNA Tests
DNA testing played a vital role in recognizing the different behaviors of humans while it also helps to identify the specific medical problems in human beings. For instance, specific types of diseases or disorder are transfer through the genetic system generation after generation and these tests of genetic material help medical professionals to diagnose the problems earlier and help the patients to treat or control them. If a person has a severe mutation in his genes named as BRCA1 and BRCA2, then that person will have the high chances of ovarian cancer or breast cancer. Testing of genetic material helps the medical professional to understand some disorders in humans, for example, a down syndrome is an abrupt change in genetic material. Genetic tests of a child will early describe this condition to parents. By improving the genetic material in human beings in some researches they conclude that some diseases or disorder will diminish from this world after some decades.
DNA has some mutations in the body by some factors and these mutations sometimes change the genetic material of the living organism. By definition, mutation is any sudden change in the genetic material of an organism. This sudden change causes some problem for the organisms and changes the genetic material generations over generations. There are three major types of mutations according to their results in the organisms.
Some mutations have no role in the general appearance of the organisms; these mutations cannot transfer in the next generation of that organism.
Some mutation causes little change in the appearance of the organisms but do not cause some lethal effects or abnormal behavior, for example in cats a little curly ear is the result of some mutation. These mutations pass on to the next generation.
Some mutations cause’s sudden deaths in the organisms and these mutations are the most dangerous in all type of mutations.
Some diseases in the human beings are the hereditary disease; they pass on to the next generation by genetic material, for example, some types of cancers, diabetes and heart diseases. In case of gene defect over six thousand diseases in humans are caused by a specific gene defect. Sickle cell anemia and some type of syndromes are the big genetic diseases challenges to the present medical science.
Uses of DNA
DNA has many useful aspects in our life; today’s technology uses these aspects for the better life of human beings. It is used in the engineering which is popular for genetic engineering in which scientists develop the new genetic material by doing some changing in the genetic material of the animals and they provide highly productive offspring in terms of meat, milk and for agriculture purpose. It played a major role in forensic science also, now we can catch a criminal just by doing some genetic tests of that particular part, for example, hair, blood, skin or any other. It is a matter of minutes now to recognize the criminal for a particular scenario. It also played its important role in the field of bioinformatics in which scientist knows the rules of storing data, interpretation of data. By the deep study of the DNA sequencing, we come to the history of living things because sequencing is changing over the course of years. On the basis of deoxyribonucleic acid, the field of Nanotechnology rises on the face of the earth which has a clear connection with the genetic material. With the passage of time humans came to know the more and more aspects of a human genetic material, in the future it is possible more fields will connect to the genetic material and medical science will make enough progress to know the all aspects of the genetic material.