India is the world’s largest democracy with a population of over 130 crores. With such a huge population, India is a diverse country with many distinct local cultures and traditions. Being a republic, anyone can contest elections and hold power. Due to this, since the day of independence, India has got 14 prime ministers, all of them from different states and different political parties.
First Prime Minister of India
Jawaharlal Nehru happened to be the first prime minister of independent India. Known as “Chacha Nehru” he was an extremely famous personality all over the world and had played a substantial role in the independence of India. He was born in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh on 14th November 1889. The day of 14th November of celebrated as “Bal Diwas” every year in his remembrance. He held the office of prime minister from 15 August 1947 to 27 May 1964. Pt. Nehru was a prominent figure of Indian independence and has contributed a lot along with Mahatma Gandhi to the independence of India.
Early Life of Prime Minister
Jawaharlal Nehru belonged to Uttar Pradesh and was born in a rich family. He belonged to the Kashmiri Pandit community and his father, Motilal Nehru was a renowned barrister of his time and also served as the president of Indian National Congress. Pt. Nehru was the eldest among the three children of Motilal Nehru.
The childhood of Jawahar Lal Nehru had been a lavish one. He was born in a wealthy and privileged atmosphere. It was his youth times when his perception of the world, his country and his life changed. He became a nationalist-minded and was extremely influenced by the Russo-Japanese War. He read a lot about this war the victory of the Japanese greatly influenced him. Subsequently, he began his higher studies in 1905 in Harrow, a renowned educational institution of England. He graduated from the Trinity College, Cambridge in October 1907 from Natural Science. The other subjects of his interests were political science, history, economics and literature.
Pt. Nehru returned to India in 1912 and was enrolled as an advocate in the Allahabad High Court. The profession of advocacy did not impress him much and he soon tilted towards nationalistic politics.
Contribution To The Independence of India
Inside months of his arrival to India in 1912, Nehru went to a yearly session of the Indian National Congress in Patna. Congress in 1912 was the gathering of conservatives and elites, and he was perturbed by what he saw as “especially an English-knowing high society affair”. Nehru harbored questions with respect to the viability of Congress yet consented to work for the gathering in the help of the Indian social equality development driven by Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa, gathering assets for the development in 1913. Later, he battled against obligated work and other such separation looked by Indians in the British settlements.
Jawaharlal Nehru also contributed a lot to the Home Rule Movement. A few patriot pioneers united together in 1916 under the initiative of Annie Besant to voice an interest for self-administration and to acquire the status of a Dominion inside the British Empire as delighted in by Australia, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand and Newfoundland at the time. Nehru joined the development and rose to end up the secretary of Besant’s Home Rule League. In June 1917 Besant was captured and interned by the British government. The Congress and different other Indian associations undermined to dispatch dissents on the off chance that she was not set free. The British government was in this manner compelled to discharge Besant and make huge concessions after a time of exceptional challenge.
The Non-Cooperation Movement was the first large-scale country-wide movement that seen a great involvement of Nehru into India’s independence. The non-cooperation movement began in 1920 under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi as the reaction of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. Pt. Nehru led the movement in Uttar Pradesh as the leader. This movement also proved his loyalty to Mahatma Gandhi when he refused to join the Swaraj Party, which was formed by his father Motilal Nehru after the Chauri Chora incident.
Political Career In Independent India
Jawaharlal Nehru took the office of Prime Minister of India on 15th August 1947 after the partition. The Congress won the elections of 1952 with a huge margin under the leadership of Nehru. This was the testament of his popularity and respect in India. Further, the Congress won the elections of 1957 under Nehru. But by this time, the criticism and anti-congress ideologies had risen to a great height. The criticism further consolidated when Nehru made his daughter, Indira Gandhi the president of Congress in 1962.
Jawaharlal Nehru remained the Prime Minister of India till 27 May 1964. He was succeeded by Gulzarilal Nanda, another popular political face of the Indian National Congress. Nehru died of heart attack on 27 May 1964 in New Delhi.