The Indian state of Punjab lies in the northern part of the country. Punjab shares its borders with Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir and Rajasthan. It also shares its border with the Pakistan province of Punjab to the west. Sikhs are the major ethnic group of Punjab. Punjab is also famous as it incorporates some of the important rivers of India which are, Ravi, Bea’s and Sutlaj. The state of Punjab is rich in flora and fauna. This can be attributed to the fact that most of the region of Punjab falls on a fertile and alluvial plain. The presence of rivers and rich irrigation systems also contribute to its rich flora and fauna.
Capital of Punjab
The capital city of Punjab is Chandigarh. The word Chandigarh is made up of two words, Chandigarh and Garh. Chandi is a Hindu goddess and Garh means fort. Chandigarh is a Union Territory of India and also happens to be the capital of Haryana. It is governed by the central government. The city of Chandigarh is the part of Chandigarh Capital Region. Chandigarh Capital Region includes the region of Panchkula, Mohali, Zirakpur, Kurli and Kharar. Chandigarh city is also very well known for its tourism and heritage. In fact, Chandigarh’s Capitol Complex was declared as World Heritage by UNESCO in July 2016. The city of Chandigarh is spread over 114 sq. Km and has a population of about 1,055,450.
- Area: 114 sq. Km
- Population: 1,055,450
- Languages: Punjabi, English, Hindi
History of Chandigarh
Chandigarh has a prominent history post-Indian independence. After the partition of India in 1947, the province of Punjab was divided. West Punjab went to Pakistan whereas east Punjab became the part of India. The problem of choosing a new capital for Punjab arouse as the previous capital, Lahore had become the part of Pakistan after the partition of India. The task of establishing a new city called ‘Chandigarh’ that would serve as the capital of Punjab was given to an American architect and planner Albert Mayor in 1949. Chandigarh city was built completely by 1960 and till then Shimla served as the capital of Punjab.
Geography of Chandigarh
The city of Chandigarh is located in the foothills of the Shivalik range of Himalayas. It lies in the northern plains and due to this comprises of vast fertile land.
The climate of Chandigarh is the humid subtropical type with 1110.7 mm of annual rainfall.
Economy of Chandigarh
Chandigarh is counted among one of the wealthiest cities of India. The Reserve Bank of India had ranked Chandigarh as the third largest deposit centre nationwide in 2012. Having the per capita income of Rs. 99, 262, Chandigarh is one of the wealthiest cities of India. Chandigarh ranked 4th out of 50 cities in a 2014 survey of “emerging outsourcing and IT services destinations”. It ranked better than Beijing.
Culture and Religion
Hinduism is the main religion of Chandigarh and about 80.78% of the population of Chandigarh follows Hinduism. Sikhism is another important religion of Chandigarh and is followed by 13.11% of the population.
Apart from being rich in wealth, Chandigarh is also rich in culture and traditions. Ramlila event is conducted every year in the month of September or October during the festival of Navratri. The Rose Festival is conducted every year in the month of February where over thousands of subspecies of rose are shown. Another popular festival celebrated in Chandigarh is the Mango Festival. It is celebrated every year during the monsoon. Some of the other festivals that are celebrated in Chandigarh is Christmas, Easter and Good Friday