The state of Jammu and Kashmir is a paradise on earth. It is a heaven on earth. Jammu and Kashmir is an Indian state which lies in the northern part of the country. Most part of Jammu and Kashmir lies in the Himalayan mountain regions. It shares its borders with the state of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. The Line of Control demarcates the boundary between Jammu and Kashmir and the region of Pakistan Occupied Kashmir. The state of Jammu and Kashmir comprises of three regions; Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh. The state of Jammu and Kashmir is famous for its landscape and Buddhist shrines.
The capital of Jammu and Kashmir
The capital of Jammu and Kashmir in Srinagar. It lies in the Kashmir valley and is an astounding tourist destination. It lies on the bank of Jhelum River, which is a tributary of the Indus, Dal and Anchor lakes. The city of Srinagar is very well-known for dry fruits and Kashmiri handicrafts. Factors like a beautiful environment and gardens, houseboats and waterfronts make it a perfect tourist destination. With the population of 1,180,570 and covering the area of about 294 sq. km, Srinagar is one of the prominent cities of India. It is the northernmost city of India.
- Population: 1,180,570
- Area: 294 sq. km
- Languages: Urdu, Kashmiri
History of Jammu and Kashmir
The reference of Srinagar can be found in the 12th-century text of Kalhana, Rajatarangini. According to this text a king named Pravarasena II had established and a city named Pravarapura. As per the topographical data, the Pravarapura is the same place as Srinagar. According to Kalhana, King Ashoka had established a town named Srinagari, which later became Srinagar.
The city of Srinagar was ruled by independent Hindu and Buddhist rulers until the 14th century. Post this period, Srinagar came under the rule of Mughals. The Kashmir valley was taken over by the third Mughal ruler, Akbar in 1586 CE. Subsequently, he annexed the Kashmir valley along with Srinagar to Kabul in 1586. Later, Shah Jahan separated the Kashmir valley from Kabul.
With the disintegration of the Mughal realm after the demise of Aurangzeb in 1707, penetration in the valley of the Afghan clans from Afghanistan and Hindu Dogras from the Jammu area expanded, and the Afghan Durrani Empire and Dogras ruled the city for a very long while. Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Sikh ruler from the Punjab district attached a noteworthy piece of the Kashmir Valley, including Srinagar, to his kingdom in the year 1814 and the city went under the impact of the Sikhs.
In 1846, the Treaty of Lahore was marked between the Sikh rulers and the British in Lahore. The treaty gave British true suzerainty over the Kashmir Valley and Maharaja Gulab Singh, a Hindu Dogra from the Jammu area turned into a semi-autonomous leader of the province of Jammu and Kashmir. Srinagar turned out to be a piece of his kingdom and stayed until 1947 as one of a few regal states in British India. The Maharajas pick Sher Garhi Palace as their principle Srinagar habitation.
Srinagar Post Indian Independence
The city of Srinagar faced serious crisis post-Indian independence. The then king of Kashmir, Maharaja Hari Singh had decided to not to accede to either India or Pakistan after the end of British rule. He favored the separate existence of Kashmir. But things changed gradually when Pashtun tribes comprising of Afridis and Mehsuds from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan with the support of Pakistan Army attacked the Kashmir Valley on 22 October 1947 to capture the whole of Kashmir. The Maharaja of Kashmir was left with no option but to sign the Treaty of Accession with India. In pursuance of this, the Indian government launched a major military operation to drive out the intruders from the Kashmir region. A huge gun battle took place between the Indian Army and the intruders heavily supported by Pakistan Army. The result was the accession of Kashmir into India and the intruders were forced to withdraw from the valley.
The city is situated on both the sides of the Jhelum River, which is called Vyath in Kashmir. The stream goes through the city and wanders through the valley, moving ahead and extending in the Dal Lake. The city is known for its nine old scaffolds, associating the two sections of the city. The city of Srinagar has lots of beautiful lakes and swamps. Some of these are the Dal, the Nigeen, the Anchor, Hokersar, Khushal Sar, and Gil Sar.
Hokersar is a wetland arranged close Srinagar. A great many transient feathered creatures come to Hokersar from Siberia and different locales in the winter season. Transient feathered creatures from Siberia and Central Asia use wetlands in Kashmir as their fleeting camps among September and October and again around spring. These wetlands assume an indispensable job in supporting a substantial populace of wintering, organizing and reproducing feathered creatures.