The capital of Goa is Panaji. The city of Panaji is located along the banks of Mandovi River. The city covers an area of about 21 sq. km and has a population of about 114,759. The capital of Goa, Panaji has the largest urban population among the cities of the state. The average literacy rate of Panaji is about 90%. The ‘Adil Shah’s Palace’ is located in Panaji. It is also called Old Secretariat. One of the best bird sanctuaries of India, Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary is also located in Panaji.
- Area: 21 sq. km
- Population: 114,759
- Languages: Konkani
The State of Goa
The state of Goa in India is located on the Western coast of India. It shares its borders with the states of Maharashtra and Karnataka. It also borders the Arabian Sea to the western coast. It is the smallest state of India in terms of area and is the fourth smallest state in terms of population. It has the highest GDP per capita income among all the states of India. The National Commission on Population had placed the state on top of the rankings in terms of quality of life in India.
History of Goa
The region of Goa was the part of the Mauryan Empire in the third century BC. It was ruled by Ashoka. It came under the Delhi Sultanate in 1312. Later, in 1370, it went to the Vijayanagara Empire. Subsequently, in the 15th century, the region of this state was taken over by the Adil Shahis of Bijapur. The king of Bijapur dynasty, Yusuf Adil Shah was defeated by the Portuguese in 1510. This helped Portuguese to set up their trade in the state. They made Velha Goa their capital. The capital of Goa, Panaji was made the capital of the Portuguese settlement in Goa in 1843.
After India got independence in 1947, the government of India requested the Portuguese to cede the state to India. Portugal rejected the request and rejected all types of talks and negotiations. This prompted India to take over the territory of the state by using the military power. The Indian Army launched Operation Vijay to drive off the Portuguese settlers from Goa. On 19th December 1961 Goa along with Daman and Diu was annexed in India. The capital of Goa, Panaji serves at its administrative center.
Flora and Fauna
The forest cover of the state of Goa is about 1,424 sq. km. The eastern part of the state comprises of the Western Ghats, which has been declared as one among the biodiversity hotspots of the world.
Coconut cultivation is extremely popular in the state. The major food crops of the state are rice, pulses, and ragi. The main cash crops of the state are coconut, cashew nut, sugarcane, pineapple, mango, and banana.
Many Nationals Parks are located in Goa. Some of them are Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary, Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary, Madei Wildlife Sanctuary, and Molem Wildlife Sanctuary. The Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary is located in Panaji.
The GDP of Goa in 2017 was $11 billion, which makes it the richest state of India. The major contributor to the economy of the state is tourism. About 12% of the total tourists in India visit this state.
Mining is another important industry of this state. The regions of the state which lie away from the coastal area are rich in minerals and ores. Minerals such as iron, bauxite, silica, limestone, and manganese are found in abundance.
The culture of the state is the mixture of Eastern and Western traditions owing to about 450 years of Portuguese rule. The major festivals of the are Christmas, Easter, Diwali, Carnival, and Padvo. Christmas and Carnival are celebrated with great enthusiasm in the capital of Goa, Panaji.