Bihar, the ancient mighty kingdom of Magadha, finds mention in the Vedas, Puranas, epics, etc., and was the main scene of political activities in India before the Christian era. The capital city of Bihar is Patna, which is also the largest city in the state of Bihar. Patna was also known as Pataliputra, Pataligram or Kusumpur. Megasthenes in his book ‘Indica’ has described the incredible and majestic city of Patna.
Founder & the Rulers of Pataliputra (modern day Patna)
Initially, Rajagaha (The Prakrit name of present-day Rajgir in Bihar) was the powerful capital city of Magadha kingdom. But in order to control and command the routes of communication along the river Ganges, king Udayin founded the city of Pataliputra in the fourth century BCE and shifted their capital to this city.
Some of the great rulers who ruled the Mahajanapad of Magadh were: Bimbisar, Udayin, Chandragupta Maurya, Asoka, Shungas, Kanvas, Kushans etc. Chandragupta Vikramaditya of the Gupta dynasty was another famous ruler of Magadh. The first Muslim conqueror of Bihar was Mohammed-bin-Bakhtiar Khalji. Khaljis were followed by Tughlaqs and the Mughals.
The modern state of Bihar was formed on 22 March 1912, which is also the Bihar Diwas.
information about capital of bihar and Boundary of Bihar
Bihar is bound on the east by West Bengal, on the north by Nepal, on the west by Uttar Pradesh and on the south by the state of Jharkhand. It is India’s 13th largest state
Rivers in Bihar
Major rivers which flow through the state of Bihar are-
- Punpun, etc.
Ancient Learning Centers: Nalanda & Vikramshila
Nalanda and Vikramshila were two great and most important ancient learning centers in the Indian subcontinent, located in the state of Bihar. Nalanda was established in 427 AD and served as the main center of higher learning until 1197 AD. Nalanda was devoted to Buddhist studies but other disciplines like Mathematics, Medicine, Astronomy, Fine Arts, Politics and War, etc. were also taught. Nalanda was the first university in the world. Vikramshila University was located near the present day Bhagalpur and was founded by Pala king Dharmapala in 8th-9th Century A.D. This University was also destroyed by Bakhtiar Khilji in 1193 CE.
Quick Facts about Bihar
- Population: 10.41 Crore (2011 Census)
- Sex Ration: 918(2011 Census)
- Literacy: 61.80(2011 Census)
- Area: 94,163 sq. km. or about 93.60 lakh hectares
- Forest Cover: 6.22 lakh hectare notified forest area, 6.65 % of the geographical area
Agricultural Produce: Paddy, Wheat, Maize, Pulses, Sugarcane, Potato, Tobacco, Oilseeds, Onion, Jute, etc.
Festivals & Fairs: Sonepur Cattle Fair, Makar Sankranti, Chatth Puja, Sama Chakewa, Shravani Mela, Pitrpaksha, Rajgir Mahotsav, Bihula, Buddha Jayanit, etc.
- Principal Language: Hindi
- Number of MPs: Rajya Sabha-16, Lok Sabha-40
- Legislative Assembly members: 243
- Legislative Council members: 75
- Climate; Humid Sub Tropical